Ikat is a dyeing technique that originated in Indonesia . It came to India because of the trade ties with Indonesia . So basically what is Ikat ? Ikat is a fabric pattern that can be made by dyeing ( adding colour to solution by soaking it in solution mixed with dye ) method . Ikat dyeing is done before the yarn is woven into fabric due to which we obtain a very different pattern . The yarn is tied with ropes and dyed . After dyeing, the yarn is set for weaving process . After woven the pattern is visible . Following the process, we can dye it again to obtain different patterns or any other process . Ikat has a long history is India , we know it because of the cave painting in Ajanta which date back to 7th century CE . Ikat was once famous in Tamil Nadu but today it is mainly developed in Telangana , Odisha and Gujarat . Each state has their own style of Ikat .
Ikat Emerging from Different States of India :-
Ikat Emerging from Telangana
This state is said to be the origin state of the Indian Ikat . Pochampally Ikat originated from a small town Bhoodan Pochampally and the weaving pattern was brought from Chirala . It is known as Pogudubandhu, Chitki and Buddabhashi in Telangana and Pochampally in the rest of India . Ikat here has a geometrical pattern . Ikat here is double ikat . Double ikat is considered as a higher form of Ikat as it requires more time and skills due to which it is gets expensive . It is prepared by tying the warp ( vertical threads ) and weft ( horizontal threads ) and then resist dyeing ( a type of dyeing in which some part of the cloth is dyed and the other is prevented from dyeing ) before weaving .
The colour is obtained from natural sources . The material used is basically cotton or silk . The most unique form of Ikat from Telangana is Telia Rumal , in which the oil is used on the yarn to give the pattern . Pochampally Sarees can price between 8,000 ( plain ) – 1,00,000 ( designer ) INR . Districts actively making Pochampally Ikat are Nalgonda , Pochampally , Puttapaka and Choutuppal .
Ikat emerging from Gujarat
This state has both form of Ikat :- Single Ikat and Double Ikat . Gujarat is famous for its Double Ikat Patola . It comes from the city Patan . They are formed by dyeing each single thread and then weaving all these threads together . Double Ikat Patola takes much time ( 6 months – 12 months or more ) to make one saree which makes it quite expensive , reaching 2,00,000 INR per saree . These sarees were once only carried by the royal families .
The technique of forming them is quite secret and only three families in Patan know how to work the way to make it . The technique for making it is only passed from the father to the son in a family . These sarees are very colourful and have geometrical design , and that is the reasons these sarees are preferred for occasions . Then there is Single Ikat Patola . These are affordable as they dont take much time to be made . City actively making Double Ikat Patola is Patan and Single Ikat Patola is Rajkot .
Ikat emerging from Odisha ( Orissa )
Popularly known as Bandha . Odisha Ikat dates back to 12th century . Ikat in Odisha originated when people from Patan arrived at Odisha . Ikat designs here are mainly inspired from Jagannath Temple . The difference between Ikat Patola and Odisha Ikat is that Patola Ikat has clear boundaries and geometrical design , on the other hand Odisha Ikat has blur boundary and arched design . It is made of tie and dye process in which yarn is made into a knot before dyeing and then weaved .
Odisha Ikat takes upto 7 months per saree . Its price ranges between 2,000-20,000 INR . Cities actively making Odisha Ikat sarees are Bargarh , Sonepur and Sambalpur .